John Doe, Acme Co.
As we globally move to a lower carbon economy, many new and improved technologies are being developed and brought to market rapidly. These technologies require validation to new and existing standards, for a diverse range of applications.
Battery technology and Lithium Ion (LI ion) batteries in particular, have undergone a massive and ongoing expansion, over a short space of time. Batteries now power countless items that support everyday life from portable computers, cordless tools, mobile telephones, watches and toys, to wheelchairs, bicycles and motor vehicles.
With multiple cell chemistries available, and differing performance and thermal management approaches, they offer an excellent combination of performance and efficiency. Here at Resonate Testing we offer a range of testing on batteries and cells to specific customer requirement and many international standards, covered in the following sections
Battery Performance Testing
Battery Safety Testing
Battery Abuse Testing
Battery Transportation Testing – UN38.3
Packaging and Shipping of Batteries
Resonate testing staff love to get involved in helping you with development and prototype testing of your batteries. We can provide bespoke performance and durability testing, helping to develop suitable test plans or provide comparisons between battery types. We can also carry out testing to any of the internationally recognised standards, including
IEC 62133 - Secondary cells and batteries - Safety requirements for use in portable applications
IEC 62620 - Secondary cells and batteries - Secondary lithium cells and batteries for use in industrial applications
IEC 61659 - Secondary cells and batteries - Mechanical tests for sealed portable secondary cells and batteries
IEC 60086 - Primary batteries
IEC 61960 - Secondary cells and batteries– Secondary lithium cells and batteries for portable applications
ISO 12405 - Electrically propelled road vehicles —Test specification for lithium-ion traction battery packs and systems — Part 4: Performance testing
We are very happy to discuss you specific requirements!
Resonate Testing offer a full range of battery tests for verifying battery performance, durability, safety and lifespan, under external environmental or mechanical conditions, for example
External Short Circuit
Forced Internal Short
As ever, we are proud of our ability to offer bespoke testing according to customer-specific requirements.
John Doe, Acme Co.
With increased use of lithium battery technology comes increased risk. Most lithium batteries manufactured today contain a flammable electrolyte and have an incredibly high energy density. The size of risks posed are generally a function of type, size, and chemistry.
Lithium batteries can also be prone to “thermal runaway”. This means is that if the internal circuitry is compromised, an increase in internal temperature can occur. At a certain temperature, the battery cells begin to vent hot gasses, and this can in turn increase the temperature in neighbouring cells. This temperature rise can propagate to other batteries or conductive materials nearby, thus causing the ‘Thermal runaway’ and potentially resulting in larger scale thermal events and sometimes ignition and fire.
As a result, large quantities of batteries can pose safety risk and therefore lithium batteries are considered hazardous materials / dangerous goods, and must be handled, stored and transported accordingly.
We at Resonate testing provide a wide range of testing services that will help to mitigate the risks associated Lithium battery powered devices, helping to ensure safety especially during transportation and customer use.
We are well used to testing with fire and batteries are no exception. Our fully equipped, specialised fire test facility allows testing to various battery and battery packaging fire testing requirements, such as
AS6413/2 Performance based package standard for lithium batteries as cargo on aircraft - Direct Flame Test
AS6413/1 Performance based package standard for lithium batteries as cargo on aircraft - Oven Test
ASTM 1529-22 Effects of Large Hydrocarbon Pool Fires on Structural Members and Assembly
As well as fire testing, there are many standard focused on abuse testing of batteries to ensure their safety and reliability on the field and in transit. There are also specific standards based on where the battery is being used, whether in a vehicle, telecommunication device, child’s toy, etc. Some examples of standards and guidance materials are given below
IEC 62660-2 - Secondary lithium-ion cells for the propulsion of electric road vehicles - Part 2: Reliability and abuse testing
IEC 62660-3 - Secondary lithium-ion cells for the propulsion of electric road vehicles - Part 3: Safety requirements
IEC/EN/UL 60086-4 - the Standard for Safety for Primary Batteries - Part 4: Safety Of Lithium Batteries
IEC 62133-2 - Safety Testing for Lithium Ion Batteries
IEC/EN 62619 - Safety requirements for lithium ion cells, modules, and packs intend to stationary storage
ISO 18243 - Electrically propelled mopeds and motorcycles — Test specifications and safety requirements
AC 120-121 - Safety Risk Management Involving Items in Aircraft Cargo Compartments
ANSI C18.1 Part 1 - Portable Primary Cells and Batteries With Aqueous Electrolyte— General and Specifications
ANSI C18.3 Part 1 - Portable Lithium Primary Cells And Batteries - General And Specifications
SAE J2464, Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Rechargeable Energy Storage System (RESS) Safety and Battery Abuse Testing
SAE J2929 Safety Standard for Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Propulsion Battery Systems Utilizing Lithium-based Rechargeable Cells
AS6413/2 - Performance based package standard for lithium batteries as cargo on aircraft - Direct Flame Test
AS6413/1 - Performance based package standard for lithium batteries as cargo on aircraft - Oven Test
ASTM 1529-22 - Effects of Large Hydrocarbon Pool Fires on Structural Members and Assembly
FreedomCAR - Electical Energy Storage System Abuse Test Manual for Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications
SAND99-0497 - U.S. Advanced Battery Consortium Electrochemical Storage System Abuse Test Procedure Manual
Most lithium or lithium-ion batteries are safe when designed, manufactured and used properly. However, if they are comprised of low-quality materials, assembled incorrectly, used or recharged improperly, become damaged, or if they have design defects, they can pose a huge risk, particularly in transportation.
The finished lithium or lithium Ion battery has been identified as a Class 9 dangerous good during transport, as a result of a potential fire hazard. As such, they should be subjected to the range of electrical and mechanical tests included within UN 38.3 for the transportation of dangerous goods. This standard applies to batteries being transported on their own or within devices.
UN 38.3 has been adopted by regulators and competent authorities around the world, making it a requirement for global market access.
The batteries must pass the tests without causing harm of involving disassembly, rupture of fire within 6 hours of the test, but the packs may perish during testing.
These rules harmonise with
Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) www.faa.gov/hazmat.
US Department of Transport (DOT) https://www.phmsa.dot.gov/training/hazmat/lithium-battery-guide-shippers
International Air Transport Association (IATA). https://www.iata.org/lithiumbatteries/
50,000ft Simulation at Ambient temperature for 6hrs
Cells and batteries
10 cycles, holding at hot and cold temp extremes for 6 or 12 hrs, plus 24 hr stability
Cells and batteries
Sine, 7Hz to 200Hz, 12 sweeps, 3 hrs/axis, parameters depending on battery size
Cells and batteries
Half sine. 3 per axis, 18 shocks, parameters depending on battery size
Cells and batteries
T5: Short Circuit
57 ± 4 °C, external case - stablised, short circuit - external resistance <0.1 ohm, ambient temp. Continued for > 1hr after the external case temp has returned to 57 ± 4 °C or after the external case temp decreased by ½ max temp increase observed
Cells and batteries
9.1 kg ± 0.1kg mass dropped from 61 ± 2.5 cm. frictionless, vertical sliding track, 90° to horizontal, Type 316 stainless steel bar on cell
Two flat surfaces speed approx. 1.5 cm/s at the first point of contact
T7: Over Charge
Test charge current is twice manufacturer's max, and test voltage is lesser of twice manufacturer's recommended charge voltage (CV) or 22V or 1.2 times CV is CV is more than 18 V - Charge time 24 hrs at ambient temp
T8: Discharge -Forced (f)
12V D.C. power supply with initial current equal to the max discharge current, discharge using resistive load ambient temp, Monitored for 7 days
If shipping lithium batteries via sea freight, it is necessary to comply with the International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) Code. This document is updated every other year.
Lithium batteries and battery-powered equipment may be transported within the United States by vessel and by motor vehicle or rail either before or after being transported by vessel in accordance with the IMDG Code. We recommend that shippers consult the most recent edition of the IMDG Code, issued by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) for additional requirements. Publications and regulations issued by IMO can be found at: www.imo.org.
Transporting lithium batteries via train requires you to meet a different set of specific guidelines for the transportation of dangerous goods. These regulations are detailed in the Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Rail (RID) guidelines.
If your lithium-ion batteries are being transported by lorry for transport within Europe, you must ensure that you comply with all of the requirements as outlined in the ADR 2017 manual. This is effectively the European Agreement that governs the shipping of lithium batteries by road / ground (and indeed that of any dangerous goods).
Shipping lithium batteries by air is the most complicated of all forms of transit, due to the increased risk (i.e. and aircraft accidents caused by fire are likely to be fatal). With damaged batteries being blamed for aircraft crashes in the past, the shipping of damaged or defective batteries is strictly forbidden.
When transporting lithium-ion batteries via air, the Dangerous Good Regulations (DGR) must be reviewed and met. These regulations are governed by the International Air Transport Association (IATA) and the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO).
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Technical Center issued a series of test reports that characterised the hazards posed by lithium cells and batteries transported as cargo on aircraft and the effectiveness of certain aircraft fire suppression agents and packaging configurations in mitigating the associated risks. The FAA Technical Center testing shows that oxygen starvation through depressurisation in the case of cargo aircraft, common shipping containers (e.g., unit load devices), or aircraft fire suppression systems are not effective in containing or suppressing many potential lithium cell or battery fires. The tests showed a large variation in the fire hazard characteristics of the thermal runaway event. The characteristics depended on cell size, chemistry, construction, and orientation. As a result of the tests, it is recommended that each battery cell be evaluated on an individual basis dependent on its specific application and operating environment
FIRE HAZARD ANALYSIS FOR VARIOUS LITHIUM BATTERIES https://www.fire.tc.faa.gov/pdf/TC-16-17.pdf
The shipping of lithium batteries are effectively covered by 4 pieces of UN legislation, although there are numerous specifics within these can influence the exact process you need to take to ensure safe shipping (or at least minimise the risk as far as is possible).
Lithium batteries are now effectively classified as Class 9 material – termed “miscellaneous dangerous goods”.
The specific UN regulations covering the shipment of these batteries are as follows:
UN 3090, Lithium metal batteries (shipped by themselves)
UN 3091, Lithium metal batteries contained in equipment or packed with equipment
UN 3480, Lithium ion batteries (shipped by themselves)
UN 3481, Lithium ion batteries contained in equipment or packed with equipment